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HOW TO FINANCE A COMPANY

  Often companies have financial difficulties or need financing for investments or business projects. In order to cover such financial requirements, one option is to look to the company partners. There are several different options available for company funding by its partners, which we sort from lower to higher enforceability, depending on whether such financing entails an increase in the…

REQUIREMENTS FOR “STRONG” COMFORT LETTERS

 I. Introduction Comfort letters are an alternative to endorsements that fulfill a personal guarantee function against a creditor or a future creditor in order for them to grant the sponsored (debtor) a corporate finance. It is an obligation of result, in which the sponsor guarantees the good purpose of the designed financing operation. The Supreme Court distinguishes between “weak” and “strong”…

NEW JUDGMENT AGAINST SPAIN BECAUSE OF CUTS TO RENEWABLES IN THE MASDAR AND ANTIN CASES

Just recently two of the twenty-seven international arbitration proceedings have concluded, which were initiated by foreign investors against the Kingdom of Spain via the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID),  attached to the World Bank, regarding the cuts applied to the  incentive system for the generation of electric energy via renewable energy in 2013: Masdar v. España Case…

HOW TO DETERMINE THE CORPORATE OBJECT – CAN A BUSINESS ACTIVITY BE CHANGED WITHOUT MODIFYING THE BYLAWS.

  I. Corporate object and CNAE (clasificaicón nacional de actividades económicas – national classification of economic activities) number. When a company is incorporated the specific activities which shall integrate the corporate object must be determined. Often, from the start, clients have a clear idea of the business they will carry out, but in general, it is recommendable to establish a…